Metrology is defined as the branch of science, which deals in any kinds weighment or measurement. The concept of weights and measures is known almost in all languages and religions of the world. In ancient India also, the States had exercised control over Weights and Measures.
The Mohanjodaro and Harappa civilization (circa 3000 to 1500 B.C) also reflects that the authorities had Inspectors to verify weights & measures.
Unfortunately, in a later period of our history, weights and measures fell into chaos. Similar was the situation in Europe also.
During ancient period, transactions of commodities were being made through “Exchange or Barter” system, which failed to satisfy the need of common man in the society particularly to cope up with inter-regional/inter –state or international transactions.
Thus, establishing a Weighing /Measuring System /Unit with Global acceptance, was necessitated as the world was becoming a village with the development of Science and Technologies.
The French Scientists assigned themselves to the task of evolving a system using nature as model and natural phenomena as guide to discourage the national /regional susceptibilities, if any.
After careful examination by groups of leading scientists of that era, 1/10th part of a quadrant of the Earth’s meridian was adopted as the unit of length “The Metre”. The Unit of mass was derived from this unit of Length by defining a “Kilogram” as equal to the mass of water at its freezing point having a volume of a decimetre (1/10th of a metre) cube.
In 1870, the French Government took the initiative and organised a convention in Paris, which was attended by 15 countries. Finally on the 20th May 1875, a “Convention du Metre” was signed by 18 countries. The signatory States not only bound themselves with the adoption of Metric System of Units but also agreed to form a permanent scientific and guiding body at Paris. Thus, Bureau International des poids et Measures (BIPM) came into existence. Thereafter, for strengthening the process of implementation /use of metric units, an International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML) was established in 1955. Member Countries also prepared their National Standards keeping reference to the International Standards of Weight and Measure.
In India, “Metric System” came into effect on 28th December 1956. The Standards of Weights & Measures Act, 1956 was enacted accordingly with the following preambles: -
- to use uniform system of Weights and Measures ;
- to make greater order and efficiency in economic management like industrial production , trade and public health ;
- to fully protect the interest of producers and consumers;
- to put the country on the map of metrication in the world ;
- to develop trade with other countries of world.
For enlarging the field of Weighment & measurement, the Standards Weights& Measures Act, 1976 and the Standards of Weights & Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977 were framed. Again, in 1985, for effective implementation of the Weights & Measures laws through out the country, the Standards of Weights & Measures (Enforcement) Act, 1985 was formulated and brought into force. The States were asked to frame their own rules in the line of Central Rules viz. the Standards of Weights & Measures General Rules,1987.
Accordingly, in Arunachal Pradesh, which was earlier under NEFA administration, for undertaking related works on weighment & measurement under statutory norms, the Deptt. of Legal Metrology was constituted in 1964. However, till formation of the Standards of Weights & Measures Act, 1976 in the Parliament and the corresponding State Rules in 1979 in Arunachal Pradesh, no remarkable field work could be made, Infact, just before Arunachal Pradesh got it’s Statehood Status, effective verification/stamping works etc were started since May, 1983. Again, consequent upon enactment of the Standards of Weights & Measures Act, 1985 and Rules thereunder, the Legal Metrology works became fully operational.